The nature of the fingerprint or even the foot print totally depends upon the friction ridges found on them. The ridges are the raised portions of the skin between the furrows which are found in either of the side. These ridges are known to be as papillary or epidermal ridges. These ridges amounts to flow in various directions and through this it gives rise to innumerable patterns. Therefore, the fingerprints are formed through the mark of epidermal ridges. These are marked as fingerprint as it includes the marks of ridges from any part of the body they have come.
These ridges contain the small pores through which perspiration takes place. These pores secrete of the eccrine gland in the ridges’ skin. These spores are spreaded whole surface of the hand. The evaporation of the perspiration results and amounts the condensing of the non- volatile constituents that mostly consists of salt, oils fat and so on. Sometimes, these come from the forehead as human often touches their foreheads and hair. So, whenever the epidemic comes with the contract with the surface, they amount to leave the mentioned material. Therefore, after the evaporation, these materials get deposited amounting in formation of the fingerprint. These deposit forms in the kind of print and in fingerprint, it can be classified as the latent print. This kind of the print is in two- dimensional pattern and they develop the visible print. But when there is the visible print, but it is tracked on the smooth surface, then it is the patent pattern. This print occurs when the smeared hands or fingers with coloured liquid or powder comes in contract with smooth surface. Another kind of the pattern is the plastic prints, which is in the form of three-dimensional marks and they are found from the pliable surface such as butter, dust, petty, mud and so on.
When the nature of the fingerprint has been covered and studied in detail, then the fingerprints are able to be classified. The fingerprints contain numerous kinds of the ridges and they are varied in length, shape, core and delta and so on. As it is stated above that the fingerprints are universal, it should be noted that the classification based upon the general shapes and it is mainly classified into four.
Before going to the classification of the fingerprint, there is a need to have an idea about three major system of classification. First is the Henry system, and this system was developed in India and it is used in most of the world. Second system was developed in German called Roschler system and it is applied there itself. The third system was developed by the South Africa and it is used by them only and the system is called Vucetich System.
According to the Henry system, the fingerprint is divided into four classes. First one is the arches. In this the ridges are formed in the form of arches. When the height of the arches is less then it amounts to the plain arch and when the height is considerable then it will amount to the tented arch. It is neither twisted nor turned and no trace of the delta. These kinds of the prints are mostly found in the five percent of the human population. Second kind of the fingerprint is the loops and it is found in most of the population, maybe 65 percent of the population. In this kind of the pattern, one or more ridges form a loop by curving backwards. Mainly there is one delta and a core and they are known as the fixed points of a pattern. The loops are further divided into two; one is the ulnar loop, where the ridge flow from left to right and another is radical, which flows from right to left. Third class is whorls which are similar to loop but it contains more than one core and one delta. These are found in the 35 percent of the population. And the last kind of the class is the accidentals, in which two or more classes are merged.
Different location: Nature
The fingerprints can be founded in various crime locations and after studying the nature, classes of the fingerprint, it is easy to classify the same and which will help in crime investigation. The crime will touch many objects when they commit the crime. They are likely to bear fingerprints. When the investigating officer locates the fingerprint in addition to the unusual procedure should first reconstruct the sense of occurrence mentally. They reconstruct the fact by turning themselves into the role of the culprit and try to check all the possible the places which the accused can touch and fingerprint can be traced. They mostly do by putting up the gloves so that their fingerprints don’t mix up with the accused. They connect the fingerprint with the other evidences which are preserved. They photograph the fingerprint so that it will lead to the further reference of the investigation.
There are many locations where the fingerprint can be traced from various crime scenes. The fingerprints can be found from the different routes of the crime scene like on the window, door, knobs and handles and so on. The fingerprint can also be traced from the vehicle, transport vehicle, while they were running, or hiding, when the portion of the vehicles comes into contact with hands of the culprit.
The richest source of the fingerprint is the scene of occurrence. The culprit must handle or touch the handle objects at the scene. Bu the problem is that it should be recorded soon after the crime or else it can be removed and vanished by the natural calamities. In the case of, Nupur Talwar v. State of Uttar Pradesh (CRIMINAL APPEAL NO. 68 OF 2012), the fingerprints was vanished because of the rain and hence, there was very much difficulty in the investigation.
The leftover objects are also seen so that if it is of the accused then it will be easy to find their fingerprint and then trace them. These leftover things can be shoes, papers, tools, weapons and so on. Then the fingerprint can also be traced from the document. For example, the murder wrote the suicide note for the victim. The fingerprints found on the dead bodies also acts as the evidence as most of the times the accused don’t wear the gloves while killing the person. So, it is also one of the richest sources of evidence. It should always be remembered that the search of the fingerprint should be done in the systematic manner.
Symbiosis Law School