Forensic science is a kind of the subject of law which deals with sciences like surgery knowledge is important during the post- mortem; in the same way, the chemicals are important to study the evidence through a chemical reaction. Everyone has different fingerprints and even the identical twins’ fingerprint is not the same even though they have identical DNA. So, whenever we touch anything we leave our fingerprints without any notice and this helps the investigation of any criminal cases. This fingerprint is the unique attempt for any investigation in the crime. It was first attempted in the year 1882 when the lady killed her husband and left her blooded fingerprint in the door. Through this fingerprint examination she was caught and new kind of forensic examination started to be practiced.
Fingerprint examination has many important features like every individual have different fingerprints so it results in uniqueness. It is permanent as nobody can change their fingerprints even after it gets burned or destroyed. This is a universal medium that means every individual has this medium of identification and it can never be held wrong. It cannot be escaped by saying that they don’t have fingerprints. It is inimitable and forgeries can be done to it perfectly.
So, this fingerprint examination is very useful during the investigation as most of the accused don’t wear the gloves to avoid the fingerprints. Therefore, when the accused touches anything during the commission of the crime the fingerprint helps in finding other evidences and helps in concluding. The fingerprint can be found or located through powdered development like grey powder, black powder and so on other techniques to locate the fingerprint are through chemicals or fuming techniques or laser development.
Section 45 of the Indian Evidence Act states for the expert opinion to which the whole fingerprint examination depends. Therefore, it is necessary to have evidentially value. Article 20(3) of the Indian Constitution states that the accused will not self- incriminate itself but through this provision of the fingerprint it amounts self- incrimination.